Depression : Depression is one of the commonest psychiatric disorder. Around 1 in 5 individuals, will develop at least one depressive episode in their lifetimes. Depression can cause significant dysfunction in the personal and professional life of an individual.
The following are the common symptoms of depression-
- Sadness of mood
- Loss of interest in activities
- Low energy levels
- Negative thoughts
- Poor sleep and appetite
- Frequent crying spells
Depression can be easily treated with the help of medications and psychotherapy (counselling)
Take the following online test to see if you have symptoms of depression
Anxiety has become a part and parcel of today’s world. It manifests with feeling of nervousness, increased heart beat (palpitations), tremors, sweating, heaviness in chest, difficulty in breathing and a fear that one will pass out. It can also present with excessive worries. There are many types of anxiety disorders, such as
Panic disorder: Here, the patient presents with acute and intense episodes of anxiety symptoms and often feels that he might be having a fatal condition such as heart attack or stroke. Such patients often go to physicians or cardiologists first, however despite multiple investigations, no physical cause can be found.
Social anxiety disorders:Here, patient has intense symptoms of anxiety in social situations (such as a meeting, interview, presentation or social gathering). Patient often feels that he will do something embarrassing and others will laugh at him. Patients may avoid social situations because of such fears
Generalised anxiety disorder:It is another common anxiety disorder, in which person has excessive worries about every small issue. They feel almost always tensed and restless and may keep on predicting that something bad will happen with them.
Phobias:Phobia are excessive and irrational fear of objects or situations. One of the commonest type of phobia is agoraphobia in which patient feels uncomfortable in crowded, closed or public places and feels that he would not be able to run out of such places, if something were to happen. Patients may present with fear of travelling alone, taking flights, fear of animals, fear of closed places etc.
Anxiety disorders can be easily treated with the help of medications and psychotherapy (counselling)
Take the following online test to see if you have symptoms of Anxiety
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this disorder, patients get repetitive thoughts and are forced to do repetitive behaviours. Despite understanding, that their thoughts are senseless, patients are not able to stop them.The common symptoms include
Repetitive thoughts about dirt/germs and repetitive washing
Repetitive doubts and repetitive checking (checking doors, checking locks etc.)
Repetitive and unacceptable thoughts about god, sex or aggression
Spending excessive time in trying to arrange things in a symmetry
Obsessive compulsive disorders needs long term treatment which includes both medications and psychotherapy (counselling sessions).
Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that is characterised by presence of delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations. Following are the common symptoms:
Suspiciousness that someone wants to harm the patient. Accusing family members/neighbours/relatives etc of plotting a conspiracy or doing black magic etc. Belief that someone is following the patient or that people are talking about a patient Talking to self, laughing to self Poor hygiene, poor sleep Decline in performance at office or studies.
Schizophrenia needs long term medical treatment. However many a times patient refuses to accept that he has an illness and also refuses to take medicines. In such cases, injectable medications can be used (which are administered once a month)
In this illness, patient has episodes of mania and depression. The manic episode is characterised by overtalkativeness, increased activity levels, irritability, decreased sleep, involvement in a lot of activities, increased sexual desire and increase in spending. These episodes usually last for at least one week. At other times, patients may develop depressive episodes.
Bipolar disorder also needs long term treatment with medications and psychotherapy sessions.
Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Use
Use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (cannabis, opioids, LSD etc) is increasing rapidly in our society. The adolescents and children are also taking to drugs use from a very young age. These drugs not only cause significant damage to physical health but can also cause mental illnesses like psychosis and depression. Its important to take the treatment as early as possible and treat the drugs problem as a medical disorder and not just as a bad habit. Now, many medicines are available which can reduce the craving for alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
Take the following online test to see if you have symptoms of Alcohol Addiction
Childhood Psychiatric Disorders
The common childhood psychiatric disorders include the following
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : It characterized by increased activity levels, poor attention span, distractibility and impulsivity.
Autistic Spectrum Disorder: It is characterized by poor social interaction, delayed language development, and having restricted interest in activities.
Conduct Disorder: It is characterized by stealing, frequent lying, getting into fights, refusal to obey parents and teachers, truancy, hitting animals etc
Mental Retardation: It is characterised by delayed development and poor level of understanding. Learning Disorders (Dyslexia): It is characterised by difficulty in reading, writing or arithmetics or a combination of these.
Dementia is a disorder seen in elderlies. The most characteristic symptoms is loss of memory. The patient may also have disturbances of speech, daily activities as well as difficulty in identifying faces and recalling words. The patient may show changes in behaviour, may becomes suspicious, irritable, quarrelsome. The patient may look apathetic or depressed.